La efectividad del Programa de Estímulos a la Innovación (PEI) en Sonora. ¿Qué factores influyen en el impacto del programa sobre la innovación y la competitividad de las empresas?

The effectiveness of the Innovation Stimulus Program (PEI) in Sonora. What factors influence the impact of the program on innovation and competitiveness of companies?

Jorge Inés León Balderrama, Cristóbal Dávila Borbón, Juan Martín Preciado Rodríguez

Resumen


Objetivo: el estudio examina los impactos del PEI en el estado de Sonora, México, mediante el diseño de un modelo que permite evaluar el peso moderador de factores relacionados con las características de las empresas y las características del proyecto. Metodología: con la información proveniente de una encuesta propia aplicada a una muestra de 39 empresas, beneficiarias del programa, ubicadas en la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, se selecciona un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple que demuestra el efecto de una serie de variables que actúan como moderadores del impacto del programa sobre la innovación y la competitividad de las empresas beneficiarias. Para la selección del modelo se usa el criterio de información de Akaike (AIC). Resultados: el impacto neto del programa sobre los insumos de innovación es definido por la calidad de las propuestas y la capacidad de asimilación del conocimiento, principalmente; mientras que los efectos netos sobre los productos son moderados por la existencia de departamento interno de I+D, la vinculación, la calidad de los proyectos y la capacidad de absorción del conocimiento. Limitaciones: el tamaño de la muestra es muy reducido, lo que tiene implicaciones sobre el nivel de generalización de los hallazgos; los datos se basan en la percepción de los beneficiarios, por los que pueden estar sujetos a sesgos; el modelo no contempla variables de tipo contextual, como la intensidad tecnológica de los sectores. Conclusiones: se encontró evidencia de un efecto de contribución neta de los subsidios otorgados por el PEI a los recursos de investigación, desarrollo e innovación (I+D+i) de las empresas beneficiarias, por un lado, a los indicadores de desempeño empresarial y desempeño en innovación, por el otro. Este efecto se encuentra moderado por factores como la existencia de un departamento de I+D, el tamaño de la empresa, la capacidad de absorción, la capacidad de innovación, la calidad de las propuestas y la vinculación con universidades y centros de investigación.


Abstract


Objective: The study examine the impacts of PEI program in Sonora state by means of the construction of a model that allows to evaluate the moderating weight of factors related to firm´s characteristics and project´s characteristics. Methodology: With the information obtained from an own survey applied to a sample of 39 beneficiary companies of the program, located in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, a multiple linear regression model is designed to demonstrates the effect of a series of variables that act as moderators of the impact of the program on firm´s innovation and competitiveness. For the selection of the model, the Akaike information criterion is used. Results: The net impact of the program on innovation inputs is defined by the quality of the proposals and the cability to assimilate knowledge, mainly; while the net effects on the products are moderated by the existence of an internal R & D department, the linkage, the quality of the projects and the capacity to absorb knowledge. Limitations: The sample´s size is very small, which has implications on the level of generalization of the findings; data are based on the perception of the beneficiaries, for which they may be subject to biases; the model does not include variables of a contextual type, such as the technological intensity of the sectors. Conclusions: There was evidence of a net contribution effect of the subsidies granted by the PEI to the R&D&I resources of the beneficiary companies, on the one hand, and to indicators of business performance and performance in innovation, on the other. This effect is moderated by factors such as internal R&D, size of the company, absorptive capacity, innovation capacity, proposals´ quality and links with universities and research centers.


Palabras clave


desarrollo regional; PEI; innovación; impacto; adicionalidad; moderadores; Sonora.

Keywords


regional development; PEI; innovation; impact; additionality; moderators; Sonora.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24836/es.v29i53.639

Copyright (c) 2019 Jorge Inés León Balderrama, Cristóbal Dávila Borbón, Juan Martín Preciado Rodríguez

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