Economía del Comportamiento: un campo fértil para la investigación de aplicaciones en política pública para México

Behavioral Economics: A fertile field for the investigation of applications in public policy for Mexico

Ana Marina Muñoz-Munguía, Carlos Gabriel Borbón-Morales, Jesús Laborín-Álvarez

Resumen


Objetivo: explorar una ruta teórico-conceptual que exhiba algunos momentos en la evolución de la Economía del Comportamiento (EC), también conocida como Behavioral Economics (BE). A través de la descripción de algunas aplicaciones y resultados obtenidos, generados a partir de los hallazgos dentro de esta disciplina; específicamente en el ámbito de política pública. Este método se ha convertido en una útil herramienta en el plano del diseño de política pública en otras regiones del mundo, pero para México es todavía un campo poco explorado, tanto en el ámbito académico como en la esfera gubernamental. Por lo que se convierte en un área de oportunidad para estas dos instancias. Metodología: Se recurrió a la revisión de bibliografía sobre el tema, guías específicas, conferencias en internet y artículos de revistas científicas. Resultados: Se constata que, con el BE se logra complementar los modelos del mainstream económico de la economía con elementos de la psicología, generando un patrón analítico que confronta a las anomalías de la teoría económica, con los hallazgos sobre el comportamiento económico del individuo. A partir de esto se amplía el conocimiento sobre el tema de toma de decisiones y, sobre esta plataforma conceptual y metodológica, eventualmente se pueden rediseñar las políticas de gobierno relacionadas a estos efectos. Limitaciones: no se encontró literatura que permita dar luz de la implementación del BE en la política pública de México, tampoco se detectó experimentación, ni formación de capital humano entrenado para estos fines. Conclusiones: Existe una deficiencia en la implementación de las aplicaciones y metodología del BE en nuestro País. Esto la convierte en un terreno fértil y de oportunidad, lo cual redunda en un refinamiento del entendimiento del comportamiento humano, tanto en el ámbito académico como para diseñadores de política pública.


Abstract


Objective: to explore a theoretical and conceptual route that exhibits some moments in the evolution of Behavioral Economics (BE), through a variety of applications and obtained results, generated from the findings within this discipline. This method has become a useful tool in terms of public policy design in other regions of the world, but in Mexico is still an unexplored field, both in academia and in the governmental sphere, becoming an area of opportunity for these two instances.  Methodology: consisted in a review of literature on the subject, specific guides, conferences and articles from scientific journals. Results: It is verified that, with BE, is possible to complement the models of the mainstream economic with elements of psychology, generating an analytical pattern that confronts the anomalies of economic theory, with the findings of the individual economic behavior. From this, the knowledge on the subject of decision-making is broadened and, on this conceptual and methodological platform, government policies related to these effects can be redesigned eventually. Limitations. No literature was found that could shed light on the implementation of BE in Mexico's public policy, nor was experimentation or human capital formation detected for these purposes. Conclusion: There is a deficiency in the implementation of BE applications and methodology in our country. This makes it a fertile ground of opportunity, which results in a refinement of the understanding of human behavior, both in the academic field and for public policy designers.


Palabras clave


desarrollo regional, economía del comportamiento; mainstream económico; experimentos; toma de decisiones; política pública.

Keywords


regional development; Behavioral Economics (BE); mainstream economics; experiments; decision making; public policy.

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24836/es.v29i53.715

Copyright (c) 2018 Ana Marina Muñoz-Munguía, Carlos Gabriel Borbón-Morales, Jesús Laborín-Álvarez

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